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The general recommendations about a choice and application of tool and constructional steels.

(Methodical recommendations)

The introduction.
Dear colleagues it is brought to your attention of the recommendation of the general character, the deliveries of metal products developed on the basis of experience to machine-building factories. The made recommendations do not contain concrete instructions on modes of heat treatment of steels. They can be found in corresponding directories. Here organizational technical aspects which knowledge will help you to avoid typical errors are considered only. To you we will be grateful, if you find possibility to specify to us on discrepancy or to add this section with a useful practical advice.

The general classification of steels.
Steel name an alloy of iron with carbon a mass fraction to 2,14 %. Cталь receive from iron ore raw materials. 

For today there was a following classification of steels:

1. Short classification of tool steels

The steels used for processing of materials by cutting and pressure concern tool steels. On a chemical compound distinguish tool carbonaceous steels and the tool alloyed steels.

To destination distinguish:

Steels for the cutting tool;

штамповые steels for cold and hot punching;

Steels for the measuring tool.

Tool carbonaceous steels contain from 0,7 to 1,3 percent of carbon, possess high hardness, concerning low cost, but insufficient wear resistance and красностойкостью. Basically are used for the manual tool or for manufacturing of the metalcutting tool which in an operating time is not exposed to influence of heats.

In Russia tool carbonaceous steels were widely adopted and Prutki, strips and hanks from the tool not alloyed steel are issued by many factories in accordance with GOST 1435-99 «. The general specifications» (to make as a hyperlink).

Typical appointment of tool carbonaceous steels is resulted in appendix A (hyperlink) in GOST 1435-99.

The general specifications on the tool alloyed steels let out in Russia contain in GOST 5950-00.

The alloyed tool steels provide high hardness, wear resistance and красностойкость, but have high cost.

Typical appointment инструментальны the alloyed steels is resulted in the table of GOST 5950-00.

Short classification of constructional steels.
The constructional carbonaceous and alloyed steels are applied to manufacturing of details of cars, units and building металлоконструкций and differ to destination: ball-bearing, ressorno-spring, теплостойкие, electrotechnical etc.

Very big list of constructional steels for mechanical engineering in accordance with GOST 4543-71 «Hire from the alloyed constructional steel is issued by the Russian factories. Specifications».

Depending on a chemical compound and properties, a constructional steel divide into categories: qualitative, high-quality, особовысококачественную, and depending on alloying elements, a steel divide into groups: